Java Interview Questions

Category: /knowledge /development
Tags: development

Fundamentals

Q: usage of Java packages:

A: 1. resolve naming conflict when different packages have classes with the same names.

  1. helps to organize files within project.

Q: explain class loaders, dynamic class loading

A: JVM calls bootstrap class loader for the 1st class. static class loading: ‘new’ an instance dynamic class loading:

    Class myclass=Class.forName("my.class.name");
    MyObject obj=myclass.newInstance();
    obj.call_regular_method();

constructors

  • static initializer or staic block

    This part of ‘static’ code is called even before constructors are executed.

  • how to call another constructor within one constructor?

    this(id)

  • how to call superclass constructor

    super(id)

overloading vs overridden

  • overloading: multiple methods in the same class with the same method name but different method signatures. define the same operation in differeent ways for different data.
  • overriding: deals with two methods, one in the parent class and the other one in the child class and has the same name and signatures. define the same operation in different ways for different object types.

Objects

Advantage of OOP

A: Polymorphism, Inheritance, Encapsulation (PIE)

An object in Java that passes more than one IS-A tests is polymorphic in nature

Every object in Java passes a minimum of two IS-A tests: one for itself and one for Object class

Static polymorphism in Java is achieved by method overloading (static binding in compile time)

Dynamic polymorphism in Java is achieved by method overriding (late bidning)

'’Inheritance’’ is the inclusion of behaviro and state of a base class in a derived class so that they are accessible in the derived class. Two types of inheritances:

  1. Implementation inheritance (class inheritance)
  2. Interface inheritance (type inheritance)

'’Encapsulate’’: refers to keeping all the related members (variables and methods) together in an object.

Q: How Java allocate stack and heap memeory

A: Stack: thread-safe, each thread owns their own stack, store primitivate vars, local vars, methods.

Heap: shared by multiple threads, store member vars (fields)

Q: instanceof vs typeof A: TODO

Interface, Abstract Class and Inner class

Interface: Java way to implement multiple inheritance. You can design a class to have multiple behavior of their parents.

Pro:

  1. not so complex as multiple inheritance C++
  2. easy to implement “callback functions”

Interface vs Abstract Class

  • Interface is good for constant chaning classes. If you have classes need to have same signature with various implementation, use Interface.
  • Abstract class provides ‘'’default behavior’’’ methods to sub-classes, and abstract methods for full implementation (implementation inheritance).
  • Remember, you can implement multiple Interfaces, but extend only one abstract class

Inner classes are useful in the following situations:

  • a helper object needs to control the private implementation of a class
  • a class needs to spawn help objects with the same protocol but different implmentations of the protocol
  • a class needs to spawn help objects that have their own state

Q: why are there some interfaces without any method declared?

A: These interfaces act like markers, aka ‘tag’, e.g. java.io.Serializable, java.lang.Clonable.

Q: Immutable objects and benefits

A: Immutable objects’ state doesn’t change change once it is instantiated. Benefits:

  1. thread-safe
  2. cache and share the references without worrying about value state

Collections and Arrays

Collections and Arrays are utilities for the collection objects, i.e. List/Set/Map, providing functions such as

  • Polymorphic algorithms: sort, shuffle, reverse, binary search
  • Set algebra: subset, intersection, union
  • Performance: much faster than vector, hashtable
  • Thread-safety: use utility function or concurrent classes
  • Immutability: wrapper implementation available for ummutable
  • Extensibility: interface and abstract classes

Top level structure

Source: Top level structure in graphviz

String[] myArray = {"Java", "J2EE", "XML", "JNDI"};
System.out.println(Arrays.asList(myArray)); 
//factory method Arrays.asList(...)

Q: static factory methods

A: static factory methods are alternatives to create objects through constructors. e.g. Arrays.asList, valueOf() methods.

Q: shallow comparison vs deep comparision A: shallow: ==, two variables point ot the same object in memory (more restricted)

deep: ‘equals()’, as long as the values of the objects are equal. It will return true.

e.g.

String a=new String("ABC");
String b=new String("ABC");
a==b; // return false
a.equals(b); // return true

Vector vs ArrayList, Hashtable vs HashMap

Vector and Hashtable are synchronized, thread-safe. ArrayList and HashMap are not thread-safe, but they are fast. When come to add/delete a hashmap or arraylist, use external utilites to lock the obj

Map myMap = Collections.synchronizedMap (myMap);
// single lock for the entire map

List myList = Collections.synchronizedList (myList); 
// single lock for the entire list

Or, use concurrent class

java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentHashMap
CopyOnWriteArrayList
CopyOnWriteArraySet

Stack vs Queue

| Stack:LIFO, java.util.Stack | Queue:FIFO, java.util.Queue |

List

Array

Map

Heap

BitSet

IO

String

Q: What is an intern() method in the String class?

A: A pool of Strings is maintained by the String class. When the intern() method is invoked equals(…) method is invoked to determine if the String already exist in the pool. If it does then the String from the pool is returned. Otherwise, this String object is added to the pool and a reference to this object is returned. For any two Strings s1 & s2, s1.intern() == s2.intern() only if s1.equals(s2) is true.

InputStream

OutputStream

File

StreamTokenizer

Zip File stream

Read/Write a property file —————————- Suppose we need to read a property file passed through command line.

import java.io.FileInputStream;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.Properties;
 
public class App {
    public static void main( String[] args ) {
      Properties prop = new Properties();
 
      try {
        //load a properties file
        prop.load(new FileInputStream(argv[0]));
 
        //get the property value and print it out
        System.out.println(prop.getProperty("db.instance"));
        System.out.println(prop.getProperty("db.user"));
        System.out.println(prop.getProperty("db.pwd"));
 
      } catch (IOException ex) {
        ex.printStackTrace();
        }
    }
}

Multi-threads

Q: process vs thread

A: process is an execution of a program, but a thread is a single execution sequence within a processes (aka lightweight process). Multiple threads share the same the heap.

Q: How many ways of creating a thread?

A: 1. extending the Thread class

  1. Implenting Runnable interface. This is the preferred way since you have the ability to iheritate multiple interface and extend other parent class.

Thread state diagram: Thread state diagram

Q: yield() vs sleep(), sleep() vs wait()

A: yield(): change from running state to runnable state. sleep(): change from running state to waiting/sleeping state.

wait(1000): sleep up to 1 second, if receives notify() or notifyAll(), it will change to runnable state. sleep(1000): will sleep exactly 1 second.

Q: how threads communicate with others?

A: by wait(), notify() and notifyAll().

More reading:

Note: Allen Holub at http://www.javaworld.com article entitled “Programming Java threads in the real world”. URLs for some of the parts are: http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/jw-09-1998/jw-09-threads.html, http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/jw-10-1998/jw-10-toolbox.html, etc.

JDBC

Network ============= Web Service ============= JMS ============ Logging ============ Testing ============ Utilities ============= Date conversion —————- Format a data string:

new java.txt.SimpleDateFormat("yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss.SS").format(new Date());

New features

Java 5

2004 Sep released, + 500 classes and interfaces

  • annotation
  • generic: enable the compiler to catch data type errors
  • improved looping syntax: for-in
  • autoboxing: convert data between class objs and primitives, values in heap and pointer in the stack
  • new Enum data type
  • import static method

Java 6

2006 Dec released, focus on new spec, + another 500 classes and interfaces

  • XML processing, web service: JAXB, JAX-WS
  • JDBC 4.0: support generic and annotation, simplified access to relational data sources.
  • annotation-based programming
  • Java compiler API: allow I/O to abstraction of the FS
  • app client GUI API: AWT/Swing

Java 7

2011,

  • diamond operator
  • strings in switch statement
  • Automatic resource management
  • Numeric literals with underscores: 1_000_000
  • Improved multi-catch exception handling: ` try{} catch (ExceptionOne | ExceptionTwo | ExceptionThree e) {}`
  • Supporting dynamism: A new package, java.lang.invoke, consisting of classes such as MethodHandle, CallSite and others, has been created to extend the support of dynamic languages.

Keystore

Java 在JVM里联接self-assigned certificate会出现SSLHandShakeException, 解决的方法是要告诉Java你的apache certificate 在哪里. 

keytool -import -keystore /etc/java-6-sun/security/cacerts \
    -file /etc/apache2/ssl/server.crt

Note:

which keytool
/usr/bin/keytool

/usr/lib/jvm/java-6-sun-1.6.0.22/jre/lib/security/cacerts 
symlinks to /etc/java-6-sun/security/cacerts

General questions

Java vs C/C++

  • Java doesn’t have pointers. C has explicit memeory management, Java uses garbage collection.
  • Java doesn’t support multiple inheritance, it uses multiple interface inheritance.
  • Java doesn’t have struct/union. Traditional structure are implmented in Collections.

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